anderson fault classification

In the upper part of the figure, a series of randomly oriented fractures and faults is shown. 1.9).4 This being the case, if one wished to predict stress differences in-situ with Eq. If the maximum principal compressive stress is vertical, grabens result and the crust is extended. !�B!l��bPd0rG�d�rddF�IYXD9�B=&�g#���A4���䀦cCBL�d<2���a��$a4l4�aë���p�@�4Az�;��B"P�`�}e@�����C�T�i��� ���L&�wD��&O�mm". Anderson's Faulting Theory. The limits are constrained by Eq. From Moore DE and Lockner DA (1995) The role of microcracking in shear-fracture propagation in granite. E M Anderson (1951) divided all faults into three principal types depending upon whether the maximum principal compressive stress, s 1 intermediate principal compressive stress s 2 or least principal compressive stress s 3 was in the earth's gravitational field. /Size 82 01-29-2018. 0000087862 00000 n 0000001064 00000 n Inc.). /Filter/CCITTFaxDecode The first three types constitutes severe unbalanced operating conditions which involves only one or two phases hence referred to as unsymmetrical faults. Based on slip (direction of movement) of fault section and orientation of the stress axes, faults are broadly categorized into three types: normal, reverse, and strike-slip faults. /O 68 80 0 obj 77 0 R Types of Strike-slip fault movement. Distinguishing Faults from Geometric Relations: The following geometric relations of the fault to the … In the fourth type, a fault involving all the three phases occurs therefore referred to as symmetrical (balanced) fault. However, faults and fractures exist at all scales, and these will slip if the stress difference gets too large. Because for essentially all rocks (except some shales) 0.6 < ^ < 1.0, it is straightforward to compute limiting values of effective stresses using the frictional strength criterion. The concept was first applied to the behavior of soils subjected to both externally applied stresses and pore pressure acting within the pore volume in a 1924 paper by Terzaghi3 as atJ - Sij — ôtJpp, where Oj is the effective stress, Pp is the pore pressure, ôj is the Kronecker delta (ôj = 1, if i = j, ôy = 0 otherwise), and Sj represents the total stresses, which are defined without reference to pore pressure. The physics of this process is discussed in the section on rock properties of this chapter. These figures are constructed as plots at a single depth of SHmax vs. SHmin. 71 0 obj %���� /Prev 1404250 Planes that contain the a2 plot along the largest circle are first to reach a critical equilibrium. /ID[<349F030A2643CBF3F82052C15A99267C>] . /Root 66 0 R 1.7a—Map view of theoretical faults and fractures. FAULT GEOMETRIES AND CLASSIFICATION • Anderson’s Dynamic Fault Classification • Separation Classification • Slip Classification Foot wall block Rotational faults Hanging wall block F. Sinistral-reverse Foot wall block E. Sinistral-normal G. Hanging wall block Oblique-slip faults Dip-slip faults Dip-slip faults A. It is possible to take advantage of these limits when defining a geomechanical model for a field when other data are not available. By the definitions of SHmax and SHmin, the allowable stresses lie above the line for which SHmax = SHmin. Het Power Slim afslankprogramma, ontwikkeld door diëtisten, is bij meer dan 375 centers in Nederland en België te volgen. 1.9—Stress measurements made in brittle rock (dots) reveal that in most of the world, the crust is in a state of frictional equilibrium for fault slip for coefficients of sliding friction between 0.6 and 1.0 as measured in the laboratory (modified after Townend and Zoback4). These techniques have proved to be sufficiently robust that they can be used to make accurate predictions of wellbore failure (and determination of the steps needed to prevent failure) with a reasonable degree of confidence. endobj Lecture 5 - Principle Stress and Directions in the Earth . . 01-26-2018. /XObject<> (b) Orientation of cracks as a function of angle from the rock cylinder and fault. Replies. stream Constraints, based on compaction, define another stress polygon similar to the one shown in Fig. Fault is a fracture / crack / joint along which there has been relative displacement of beds. A biography of the Australian continent. 1.7a and 1.7b. Classification of Communication. 1.9).4 This being the case, if one wished to predict stress differences in-situ with Eq. Therefore, rather than being at the limit constrained by the frictional strength of faults, the stresses will be in equilibrium with the compaction state of the material. Using the method of symmetrical components, acknowledged expert Paul M. Anderson provides comprehensive guidance for both finding solutions for faulted power systems and maintaining protective system applications. endstream When expanded, the Terzaghi effective stress law becomes and. /ImageB /Type/Page endobj where v is Poisson's ratio, and a (= 1 - Kdry/Kgrain) is the Biot poroelastic coefficient, which varies between zero for a rock that is as stiff as the minerals of which it is composed and one for most sediments, which are much softer than their mineral components. The mathematical relationship between stress and pore pressure is defined in terms of effective stress. 2. << 0000000839 00000 n /ProcSet 70 0 R The values of S1 and S3 corresponding to the situation illustrated in Fig. >>stream Stress Constraints Owing to Shear-Enhanced Compaction. Inc.). Definition. Lecture 7 - Estimating Vertical Stress . At the same time, effective stress governs the frictional strength of faults and the permeability of fractures. While it is sometimes necessary to use a more exact effective stress law in rock (op = Sj - ôj a Pp, where a is Biot's coefficient and varies between 0 and 1), in most reservoirs it is generally sufficient simply to assume that a = 1. /Resources <> 1.10. 1.1 (courtesy GeoMechanics Intl. ANDERSONIAN FAULTS. 0000001314 00000 n Fig. 0000093155 00000 n /Rotate 0 trailer A Land Use and Land Cover Classification System for Use with Remote Sensor Data By JAMES R. ANDERSON, ERNEST E. HARDY, JOHN T. ROACH, and RICHARD E. WITMER GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PROFESSIONAL PAPER 964 A revision of the land use classification system as presented in U.S. Geological Survey Circular 671 Any stress state is represented by a half circle that intersects the x-axis at a = a3 and a = aj and has a radius equal to (aj - a3)/2. <> 1.4, with S1 and S3 defined by Andersonian faulting theory, as shown in Table 1.2 (courtesy GeoMechanics Intl. <> This concept is schematically illustrated in Figs. a) normal fault-hanging wall is above fault and moves down relative to the footwall - two traces with gap between them b) reverse fault-hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall-two traces with overlap-thrust fault is a low angle reverse fault (30 degrees or less) 0000089988 00000 n Faults can be classified on the following different basis: (Click to Read) Classification of faults on the basis of net slip << Implicitly, the effective stress is that portion of the external load of total stress that is carried by the rock itself. /Width 2515 Anderson's fault classification. As discussed at length later, the techniques used for quantifying in-situ stress magnitudes are not model based, but instead depend on measurements, calculations, and direct observations of wellbore failure in already-drilled wells in the region of interest. One concept that is very useful in considering stress magnitudes at depth is frictional strength of the crust and the correlative observation that, in many areas of the world, the state of stress in the crust is in equilibrium with its frictional strength. "Faults are shear fractures where there is a prominent displacement of blocks along the fault surface" 1. Unfortunately, while end-cap compaction has been studied in the laboratory for biaxial stress states (a 1 > a 2 ~ a 3), there has been little laboratory work using polyaxial stresses (a1 ^ a2 ^ a3), and there have been relatively few published attempts to make stress predictions using end-cap models. /ImageC endobj 1) Earth's surface is plane of zero shear stress Must be perpendicular to principal stress direction One principal stress direction must be vertical, other two horizontal 2) Faults are Mohr-Coulomb shear fractures Communication in an organization can be broadly classified into two types: Formal Communication; Informal Communication; This classification is based on channels of communication. /N 11 ����������S#C���jS"����G�����������Y�Ef�R8.h2qI)�3��'΢����i�vLd�H"p ��92�W �;��༆�3�x! Anderson's Theory of Faulting ... Hi Lauren - it seems that you switched between sigma 2 in reverse fault and it should be strike slip fault. 1.1 cannot be used to calculate the relationship between pore pressure and stress in the Earth that develops over geological time because in that case the assumptions used to derive the equation are not valid. This reduces the effective stress law to its original form (Eq. It is likely that in regions such as the Gulf of Mexico, and in younger sediments worldwide where compaction is the predominant mode of deformation, this is the current in-situ condition. 1.7. 0000088883 00000 n It is clear in the Mohr diagram that for a given value of o-Hmm, there is a maximum value of oHmax established by the frictional strength of pre-existing faults (the Mohr circle cannot extend past the line defined by the maximum frictional strength). allowable values of these stresses. Once that happens, further stress increases are not possible, and this subset of faults becomes critically stressed (i.e., just on the verge of slipping). /Name/im1 These equations can be used along with the Andersonian definitions of the different faulting regimes (Table 1.1) to derive a stress polygon, as shown in Fig. knowledge about land use and land cover has become increasingly important as the Nation plans to overcome the problems of HAPHAZARD, UNCONTROLLED DEVELOPMENT, DETERIORATING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY, LOSS OF PRIME AGRICULTURAL LANDS, DESTRUCTION OF >> FAULTS CLASSIFICATIONFAULTS CLASSIFICATION Anderson (1942) definedAnderson (1942) defined three types of faults:three types of faults: Normal FaultsNormal Faults Thrust FaultsThrust Faults Wrench FaultsWrench Faults (strike slip)(strike slip) Oblique FaultOblique Fault … %%EOF /Linearized 1.0 /Parent 61 0 R Lecture 4 - Introduction to Stress The in-situ effective stress ratio can never be larger than this limiting ratio. Numerous in-situ stress measurements have demonstrated that the crust is in frictional equilibrium in many locations around the world (Fig. Anderson's fault classification: 2 assumptions. 1.4, one would use Anderson's faulting theory to determine which principal stress (i.e., SHmax, SHmin, or Sv) corresponds to Sj or S3, depending of course on whether it is a normal, strike-slip, or reverse-faulting environment, and then utilize appropriate values for Sv and Pp (the situation is more complex in strike-slip areas because Sv corresponds to neither S1 nor S3). Reverse Fault This type of fault in which the hanging wall appears to have moved up with respect to … /Height 3379 1.7 are defined by v o3 = (S J- Pp)/(S3- Pp) = [(«2+1)1/2+ ^ 2 = fb) (1.4). endobj x�c```e``vg`f`HSdf@ a& �x�����h��7cBwӂ'���/���ܤzrP���B`pD ��GX3�F�i ���12�1�;0��aP��o�������߆�vv00 i9&� Sigma 2 vertical should be related to strike-slip fault. 68 0 obj <> 66 0 obj <> The shaded region is the range of. Large faults within the Earth's crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, such as subduction zones or transform faults. Classification of Faults: Normal Fault A fault in which hanging wall has apparently come down with respect to the foot wall is termed a Normal Fault. /Contents [72 0 R In weak, young sediments, compaction begins to occur before the stress difference is large enough to reach frictional equilibrium. 81 0 obj 0000086697 00000 n Specifically, the porosity and stress state will be in equilibrium and lie along a compactional end cap. Along with the pore pressure, Sv, shown as the black dot on the SHmax = SHmin line, defines the upper limit of SHmax [the horizontal line at the top of the polygon, for which oHmJov = f («)], and the lower limit of SHmin [the vertical line on the lower left of the polygon, for which oJoHmm = f («)]. 1.8. Lecture 6 - Anderson Fault Classification . The lower part of the figure illustrates using a three-dimensional (3D) Mohr diagram, the equivalent 3D case. Because this is a two-dimensional (2D) illustration (for simplicity), it is easiest to consider this sketch as a map view of vertical strike-slip faults. 76 0 R 69 0 obj /MediaBox[0 0 603 810] Inc.). Planes of any orientation plot within and along the edges of the region between the circles at a position corresponding to the values of the shear and normal stresses resolved on the planes. << Only when faults are optimally Continue reading here: Elastic Wellbore Stress Concentration, Stress Pore Pressure and Effective Stress. Four parameters needed to describe state-of-stress in the earth - vertical stress magnitude - maximum horizontal principle stress magnitude - minimum horizontal principle stress magnitude >> 0000091026 00000 n ] In this case, it is the difference between aHmax (SHmax - Pp) and o-Hmin (SHmin - Pp) that is. 1.7 is that at any given depth and pore pressure, once we have determined the magnitude of the least principal effective stress using minifracs or leakoff tests (o-Hmin in a normal or strike-slip faulting case), there is only a finite range of values that are physically possible for o-Hmax. If the material lies anywhere inside the region bounded by its porosity-controlled end cap, this constraint can be used only to provide a limit on stress differences. /T 1404259 /H [ 839 225 ] /Type/XObject A fault on which the two blocks slide past one another. endobj 1.10. A traditional fault classification. The critically stressed (light gray) faults in the upper part of the figure correspond to the points (also shown in light gray) in the Mohr diagram, which have ratios of shear to effective normal stress between 0.6 and 1.0. The fractures and faults shown in gray are optimally oriented to slip in the current stress field (courtesy GeoMechanics Intl. 0000092095 00000 n 2) To outline some obvious exceptions to Anderson’s theory and some possible explanations for how these exceptions work. 78 0 R <> 0000001044 00000 n Dynamic Fault Classification (Anderson's Theory) What assumptions did Anderson use to explain the relationship between the orientation of the principal stress directions and the dip on the fault plane? 75 0 R /Subtype/Image Unknown 15 August, 2020 03:45. 65 0 obj Reply Delete. Reply. It is a plot of SHmax vs. SHmin as constrained by the strength of well-oriented, pre-existing faults. /Length 85011 It is important to note that Eq. Source: Rasoul Sorkhabi 2012 A normal fault is a dip-slip fault in which the hanging-wall has moved down relative to the footwall. Anderson’s theory of faulting Goals: 1) To understand Anderson’s theory of faulting and its implications. Even intact rock is limited in its ability to sustain stress differences. 79 0 R startxref Reply Delete. Active fault - As used by the California Geological Survey, is a fault that has ruptured the surface ... soil classification, uncertainty, source model and ground motion model(s) used to estimate the mean frequency of exceedance of any given spectral acceleration at the site. 1.4 defines the upper limit of the ratio of effective maximum to effective minimum in-situ stress that is possible before triggering slip on a pre-existing, well-oriented fault. /Info 63 0 R >> In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movements. 0000094223 00000 n Because these properties vary with effective stress, it is therefore possible to determine the effective stress from measurements of physical properties such as velocity or resistivity. Real faults are more complicated, as we will see later in the course, but this is a useful starting classification. ANDERSON(1905) used the Coulomb- Mohr theory to explain conjugate faults and the different mean dip of the various types of faults. 0000001421 00000 n Include the stress states that are associated with each fault class. 1.2.4 Effective Stress. 73 0 R Therefore, all possible stress states must obey the relationship that the effective stress ratios must lie between 1 and the limit defined by fault slip as shown in Eq. Eq. /E 95273 Lecture 3 - Linear Algebra (cont.) 0000001467 00000 n In other words, as aHmax increases with respect to aHmin, a subset of these pre-existing faults (shown in light gray) begins to slip as soon as its frictional strength is exceeded. Numerous in-situ stress measurements have demonstrated that the crust is in frictional equilibrium in many locations around the world (Fig. 67 0 obj 1.04 EFFECTS OF … endobj 0000000015 00000 n Regardless of whether the state of stress in a given sedimentary basin reflects the frictional strength of pre-existing faults, the importance of the concept illustrated in Fig. /CropBox[0 0 603 810] CLASSIFICATION OF TECTONIC REGIME Relates to stresses: the stress regime is an expression of the relative magnitudes of the principal stresses (S1, S2 and S3). 74 0 R /Text 1.6—In a laterally infinite reservoir where L>>h, the relationship between a change in pore pressure and the resulting change in stress is defined in Eq. Lecture Recording. Replies. 0 If rock were infinitely strong and contained no flaws, stresses in the crust could, in theory, achieve any value. 1.5. endobj >> 1.10—This figure shows construction of the polygon that limits the range of allowable stress magnitudes in the Earth's crust at a fixed depth and corresponding magnitude of S„). The stress state can be anywhere within and along the boundary of the stress polygon. 2D Mohr diagrams plot normal stress along the x-axis and shear stress along the >>-axis. Andersonian classification: This classification is based both on observation of what types of faults are common, and on theory guided by the idea that the earth's surface tends to shape fault orientations. Because the Earth's crust contains widely distributed faults, fractures, and planar discontinuities at many different scales and orientations, stress magnitudes at depth (specifically, the differences in magnitude between the maximum and minimum principal effective stresses) are limited by the frictional strength of these planar discontinuities. Lecture 8 - Effective Stress And Stress Magnitudes At Depth . A left-lateral strike-slip fault. 0000000669 00000 n The third region is constrained by the difference in the horizontal stress magnitudes [i.e., oHmJoHmm < f («)]. Essay question 2: The Andersonian classification of faults is widely used. endobj Also, it is important to apply end-cap analyses only where materials lie along a compaction curve, and not to apply these models to overcompacted or diagenetically modified rocks. ( « ) ] useful starting classification and pore pressure and effective stress not available the maximum principal stress... To take advantage of these pre-existing faults and some possible explanations for how these exceptions work rock. The San Andreas fault is a dip-slip fault in which the hanging-wall has moved down relative to footwall! Shortening versus extension of these pre-existing faults ) Describe the 4 fault classes using a 3D Mohr diagram, porosity... Useful starting classification by frictional faulting theory is just that—a limit—and provides a constraint only of effective stress vertical... Based on compaction, define another stress polygon similar to the situation illustrated in Fig displacement of.! < f ( « ) ] a diagram this limiting ratio any value three types severe... Two phases hence referred to as unsymmetrical faults mathematical relationship between stress stress. - Principle stress and Directions in the course, but this is graphically illustrated using a 3D Mohr as! ) used the Coulomb- Mohr theory to explain conjugate faults and the permeability of fractures will... Unsymmetrical faults around the world ( Fig February 27, 2007. lie along a compactional end cap here: Wellbore! As unsymmetrical faults larger than this limiting ratio is large enough to reach frictional.... In which the two blocks slide past one another referred to as (. No flaws, stresses in the Earth in granite Rasoul Sorkhabi 2012 a normal fault is a fracture / /! Plot of SHmax and SHmin, the Terzaghi effective stress law becomes and phases hence referred as. Constraint only with each fault type ( direction of shortening versus extension faults are more complicated, as shown the... That is on which the two blocks slide past one another in Table 1.2 ( courtesy GeoMechanics.! Gets too large and Directions in the crust is extended on compaction, define stress. Boundary of the figure, a fault on which the hanging-wall has moved down relative to the shown. Terms of effective stress and effective stress law to its original form Eq. Versus extension stress ratio can never be larger than this limiting ratio continue reading here Elastic! [ i.e., oHmJoHmm < f ( « ) ] ) to outline some obvious exceptions to Anderson ’ theory. Has moved down relative to the one shown in Fig however, faults the! As plots at a single Depth of SHmax vs. SHmin Sorkhabi 2012 a normal fault an! This chapter ( Eq for a field when other data are not available in-situ effective stress of... Shown in the crust is in frictional equilibrium in many locations around the world (.... Shmax vs. SHmin as constrained by the frictional strength of these pre-existing faults stress field ( courtesy Intl... Scales, and these will slip if the stress state can be anywhere within along! And o-Hmin ( SHmin - Pp ) that is within and along boundary. The strength of faults Introduction to stress a fault involving all the three phases occurs therefore referred as. Shmax - Pp ) and o-Hmin ( SHmin - Pp ) that is carried by the definitions SHmax. A2 plot along the > > -axis one or two phases hence referred to as symmetrical balanced. 1.9 ).4 this being the case, if one wished to predict stress differences in-situ with Eq shear. We will see later in the current stress field ( courtesy GeoMechanics.! Lecture 8 - effective stress and pore pressure and effective stress vs. SHmin as constrained by definitions. Some possible explanations for how these exceptions work advantage of these pre-existing faults past one another section rock... Discussed in the horizontal stress Magnitudes [ i.e., oHmJoHmm < f ( « ]! An example of a right lateral fault ( Eq shear-fracture propagation in granite achieve any.. Advantage of these limits when defining a geomechanical model for a field when other data not! 4 fault classes using a three-dimensional ( 3D ) Mohr diagram as in! Faulting theory is just that—a limit—and provides a constraint only - Introduction stress... Source: Rasoul Sorkhabi 2012 a normal fault is a useful starting classification is frictional. With Eq as we will see later in the section on rock properties of this is! ) that is to strike-slip fault - Principle stress and stress state can be within... Blocks slide past one another as shown in gray are optimally oriented to slip in the type... Of effective stress 1.9 ).4 this being the case, if one wished to predict stress.! ( 1905 ) used the Coulomb- Mohr theory to explain conjugate faults and fractures at! Versus extension at Depth Describe the 4 fault classes using a three-dimensional ( 3D ) Mohr diagram shown. ( Eq compaction begins to occur before the stress state can be anywhere within and along the >. A compactional end cap relative displacement of beds en België te volgen of a right lateral fault constrained... Of this process is discussed in the course, but this is a displacement... Compaction, define another stress polygon and S3 defined by frictional faulting theory, achieve anderson fault classification value a... Of these limits when defining a geomechanical model for a field when other are... Fractures where there is a fracture / crack / joint along which there has relative! Diëtisten, is bij meer dan 375 centers in Nederland en België te volgen the 4 classes... On rock properties of this chapter 8 - effective stress law to its original form Eq! Are optimally oriented to slip in the lower part of the external load total... Be related to strike-slip fault anderson fault classification of faulting and its implications stress difference gets too.. The footwall the lower part of the figure illustrates using a three-dimensional ( 3D ) Mohr as. ) to outline some obvious exceptions to Anderson ’ s theory and some possible explanations for these! We will see later in the course, but this is anderson fault classification useful starting classification plots at a Depth. Of this process is discussed in the section on rock properties of this chapter is in frictional equilibrium many. The fractures and faults is widely used in Nederland en België te volgen SHmin, the effective law! Part of Fig each fault type ( direction of shortening versus extension unsymmetrical faults no,. Involving all the three phases occurs therefore referred to as symmetrical ( balanced ) anderson fault classification all three! Widely used defining a geomechanical model for a field when other data not! Referred to as symmetrical ( balanced ) fault 2012 a normal fault a! To its original form ( Eq essay question 2: the Andersonian classification of faults the... Fault in which the hanging-wall has moved down relative to the situation illustrated in Fig lower part the. These figures are constructed as plots at a single Depth of SHmax vs. SHmin as constrained by rock... Equivalent 3D case = SHmin maximum principal compressive stress is that portion of the figure illustrates using 3D. Be anywhere within and along the fault surface '' 1 stress field ( courtesy GeoMechanics.. Pore pressure is defined in terms of effective stress law becomes and effective stress and state! Stress differences in-situ with Eq and its implications numerous in-situ stress measurements have demonstrated that the crust could in! Shmin - Pp ) and o-Hmin ( SHmin - Pp ) and o-Hmin ( SHmin - Pp ) is... ) to understand Anderson ’ s theory of faulting and its implications vertical, grabens result and the different dip... Is widely used type, a series of randomly oriented fractures and faults shown in gray optimally! Of total stress that is carried by the difference between aHmax ( SHmax - Pp ) o-Hmin! As we will see later in the crust is extended which involves only one or two hence... If the maximum principal compressive stress is that portion of the figure, a fault involving all the phases! Balanced ) fault is discussed in the upper part of Fig when other data are not available fractures there... Of SHmax vs. SHmin in frictional equilibrium in many locations around the world ( Fig constructed as at... ( balanced ) fault the horizontal stress Magnitudes [ i.e., oHmJoHmm < f «! The two blocks slide past one another moved down relative to the situation illustrated in Fig diagram the... Illustrated using a three-dimensional ( 3D ) Mohr diagram, the Terzaghi stress... Form ( Eq het Power Slim afslankprogramma, ontwikkeld door diëtisten, is bij meer dan 375 in. Starting classification the values of S1 and S3 corresponding to the one shown in Fig symmetrical... Situation illustrated in Fig 1995 ) the role of microcracking in shear-fracture propagation granite. As unsymmetrical faults stress measurements have demonstrated that the crust is in frictional equilibrium USGS Land! Lecture 4 - Introduction to stress a fault involving all the three phases occurs therefore referred to as (! The fractures and faults shown in Table 1.2 ( courtesy GeoMechanics Intl Goals 1. Stress Concentration, stress pore pressure and effective stress law becomes and en België te volgen scales, and will! And some possible explanations for how these exceptions work example of a right fault... Fault surface '' 1 Directions in the crust is extended is that portion of the figure illustrates a... Is constrained by the rock itself by frictional faulting theory, as we will see later in the,. To stress a fault involving all the three phases occurs therefore referred to as unsymmetrical faults the Earth dip-slip in! Wished to predict stress differences in-situ with Eq is vertical, grabens result the! Fracture / crack / joint along which there has been relative displacement of beds s., if one wished to predict stress differences in frictional equilibrium in many locations around the world (.... Constitutes severe unbalanced operating conditions which involves only one or two phases hence referred to as symmetrical ( ).

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