what are the theories of spirituality

Most of us don't believe that shamanic ritual actually drives away evil spirits, along with our germs and diseases. Newspapers and national magazines, including Newsweek, Time and the New York Times Magazine publish stories on "Faith and Healing," "Science, God, and Man" and "Choosing My Religion.". Recently, however, The National Institute of Health Care Research, a nonprofit organization, began awarding grants up to $15,000 in support of academic projects exploring spirituality and psychiatry. PRAYER Prayer may be the oldest spiritual practice and the most popular one in America. While both Love and Nash attempt to define the terms, I feel there is more to understanding these important differences. By David N. Elkins Ph.D. published September 1, 1999 - last reviewed on June 9, 2016. Here is a sampling, according to some researchers, of what a dose of spirituality can do for you. From the rain dances of Native Americans to the celebratory dances of Hasidic Jews, from the whirling dervishes of Islam to the meditating monks of Zen Buddhism, from the ecstatic worship services of charismatic churches to the solemn, silent meetings of the Quakers, spirituality takes on many expressions. Kabbalah is about wonderment." Coparenting With an Ex: Battleground vs. Common Ground. Then, I help them design a regular, structured program to incorporate these activities into their life. However, religion is often discussed in terms of spiritual and social wellness. Contemplation, meditation, prayer, rituals and other spiritual practices have the power to release the "life force" in the deepest levels of the human psyche, levels that secular interventions cannot reach. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man", oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world. Spirituality is the fastest growing--one of the only growing--sector of the publishing industry, with literally millions buying books on the theme. … Many feel more comfortable referring clients struggling with these issues to a priest, pastor or rabbi. RELAXATION AND MEDITATION "There is no greater source of strength and power for me in my life now than going still, being quiet and recognizing what real power is," says Oprah Winfrey on the segment of her daily television show called, "Remembering Your Spirit." Spirituality is a personal experience that creates a system of personal beliefs when searching for the meaning of life. LIFESTYLE A recent review of several studies suggests that spirituality is linked with low suicide rates, less alcohol and drug abuse, less criminal behavior, fewer divorces and higher marital satisfaction (Religion and Clinical Practice, 1996). Adults who are good, law-abiding citizens may never move past this point. Spirituality is also a way of dealing with everyday challenges in life and … Cultures around the world today still depend on shamans for most of their health care. I encourage clients and students to first figure out what moves them deeply--whether it's Beethoven, Garth Brooks or the Grateful Dead, a hike in the mountains, or a day in an art gallery. She said, "In that moment I felt eternity. Belief in spirits grew out of attempts to explain life and death. Seven pathways are developed through which spirituality engenders a wide range of salutary outcomes. The great spiritual traditions of India commonly teach that the world is Maya, … The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. Why Do Antiheroes Appeal to People With Dark Traits? Adults who do not move past this stage tend to engage in antisocial and/or criminal behavior because they cannot obey rules. The psychologist gave me the skills I needed to build a life of passion and depth. This paper reviews recent theories and research in cognitive development and spirituality with the aim of providing connections between the two domains. David N. Elkins, Ph.D., is a licensed psychologist and professor of psychology in the Graduate School of Education and Psychology at Pepperdine University. 10 Words or Phrases That Convey Intelligence and Nuance. "Religion is basically a container for faith. Though the paths are different, all the spiritual people have similar characters. Because somewhere, deep inside, I knew he was right. In 1990, Edward P. Shafranske, Ph.D., of Pepperdine University, and H. Newton Maloney, Ph.D., of Fuller Theological Seminary, surveyed 409 members of the American Psychological Association about their approach toward religion and psychology. Religiousness and spirituality differ significantly from other points in the continuum and things are not accepted on blind faith or out of fear. Early animistic cultures believed spirits controlled everything, including sickness and health. One of my graduate students told me she had gone for a walk on the beach in the late afternoon. An introduction to various theories of spiritual development. For the next two years, under the guise of psychotherapy, I was taught how to care for and feed my soul. If we understand how everything is interconnected, we can make better decisions and become more aware of what impacts we are having not just on a physical level, but on a mental level as well. Sarah Stich, a 16-year-old high school student in Colorado, checked out Kabbalah after seeing Madonna discuss her new passion on VH1, the music video channel. Me, a grown 31-year-old man. But the lure of this medieval philosophy has transcended Jewish interest. A powerfully spiritual moment--and one we have all experienced--is the instant we are confronted with earth's perfection and are filled with awe. This force goes beyond space and time f Spirituality offers a sense of connectedness intrapersonally (connected within oneself) Interpersonally (connected with others and the environment) and Transpers… Get an idea of features of people with spirituality and religiousness. Today, as a clinical psychologist and university professor, I share this wisdom with clients and students because I believe that spirituality is essential to human happiness and mental health. MORTALITY Research on 1,931 older adults indicates that those who attend religious services regularly have a lower mortality rate. Even an agnostic can develop spirituality without a firm belief in Deity. It stands for something greater in life than the physical or material world. Studies show that most Americans want spirituality, but perhaps not in religious form. In his 1987 book The Different Drum: Community Making and Peace, M. Scott Peck discusses four stages of spiritual development. This is the stage where very young children tend to be. Television programs such as Bill Moyers' "Genesis: a Living Conversation" and Hugh Hewitt's "Searching for God in America" have attracted large audiences. Primitive people used human dreams in which spirits seemed to appear as an indication that the human mind could exist independent of a body. Source: Social Work ASWB Masters Exam Guide: A Comprehensive Guide For Success by Dawn Apgar, Theories of Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Development, You Will Never Be Rich If You Keep Doing These 10 things, Apple’s 8GB M1 Silicon isn’t Magic, but it is Magical, How To Create A Fully Automated AI Based Trading System With Python, Emma Watson’s Distaste for Channing Tatum’s On-set Speedo Dance Doesn’t Make Her a Prude, One Good Investment Can Allow You Never to Work a Normal Job Again. Take Quantum Entanglement, for example, a strange phenomenon that Einst… This type of interconnectedness spoken of in spiritual teachings is also demonstrated by science. As such, it is a universal human experience—something that touches us all. Sigmund Freud is most famous for his psychoanalytic school of thought, but he also took a keen interest in religion. And faith is a very important part of what allows us to remain stable, remain balanced." This innate trait must be nurtured to flourish. IMMUNITY Research on 1,700 adults found that those who attend religious services were less likely to have elevated levels of interleukin-6, an immune substance prevalent in people with chronic diseases (International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 1997). The anthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor (1832–1917) defined religion as belief in spiritual beings and stated that this belief originated as explanations of natural phenomena. Individuals have no care for rules and lack empathy for others. FDT gives insight into spiritual and religious development using a non-sectarian approach. For thousands of years, long before the advent of modern medicine, people looked to spirituality for cures. … As spirituality spreads, psychology can't decide to love it or leave it alone. This theoretical framework is a synthesis and elaboration upon the behavioral/cognitive approach to spirituality (Brown, Peterson, & Cunningham, 1988). Daughters belonging to the same religious denomination as their mothers are even less likely (71%) to suffer the blues; sons were 84% less likely (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1997). Spirituality is a difficult concept to define. The Spiritual Theory is divided in 2 major sections: Section I or The Spiritual Era and Section 2 or The Material Era. "There is no real understanding of why you're Jewish without it.". Compared to the Catholic theology she was raised with, Madonna believes that Kabbalah is more adaptable to modern life. Madonna is just one of the many non-Jewish celebrities who say Kabbalah has transformed her life. Near the end of the session, he said gently, "You are spiritually hungry." Section I or The Spiritual Era is composed of 7 chapters and 49 subthemes. When she was in her 40s, Bernhard's Brazilian fitness trainer introduced her to the Los Angeles Kabbalah Center. In this stage, you begin to realize that there is more to life than personal power and material … He bases his stages on the work of Fowler. First, I will discuss the three concepts of faith, spirituality, and religion. Models of spiritual development follow the same basic outline of development. This is the stage where children who have simply learned to obey parents and authority figures tend to be. "I felt there was something spiritually lacking," says actress/comedian Sandra Bernhard of her Jewish upbringing. I told my story, the one I had rehearsed, but he heard the truth anyway. A Christian might define spirituality as the quality of their relationship with Christ. Abstract The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient’s needs and challenges. More and more Americans are finding in spirituality what they're looking for in therapy--healing techniques and new inspiration. Many “religious” people who have blind faith in a spiritual being without question may also be at this point. But shamanism may succeed for reasons beyond our current understanding, and without scientific inquiry, its healing power remains an enigma. An estimated 32 million baby boomers remain unaffiliated today, turning instead to Eastern practices, new age philosophies, Twelve Step programs, Greek mythology, Jungian psychology, shamanic practices, massage, yoga and a host of other traditions and practices. Though dozens of studies have begun to examine religion's effects on our mental health, the subject has lacked sufficient funding for more in-depth research. The scientist Carl Sagan wrote about his time-in-nature experience: "The wind whips through the canyons of the American Southwest, and there is no one to hear it but us. They begin as egocentric, move to conformist, and end at integration or universal belief. Back when it was a new science, psychology tried to distance itself from theological explanations of behavior and to discover its own truths through scientific inquiry Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, even declared religion to be nothing but a form of pathology--an obsessional neurosis that grew out of feelings of infantile helplessness. When members of a tribe fell ill, the shaman used spiritual interventions to bring the patient back into harmony with the sacred world, to bring back their health. (American Journal of Public Health, 1998). He is the president of the Humanistic Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association and author of Beyond Religion: A Personal Program for Building a Spiritual Life Outside the Walls of Traditional Religion (Quest Books, 1998). Self Transcendence-is the belief that there is a force outside of and greater than the person. In the 1990s and as we approach the millennium, it is obvious that Americans are becoming more expressively spiritual. Harvard University is one pioneer in the field of spirituality and mental health. It is hypothesized that spirituality is related to the broaden and build theory. What Really Goes on in the Mind of a Cheater? A Buddhist would have a different definition of spirituality. The Healing Power of Faith: Science Explores Medicine's Last Great Frontier, Harold G. Koenig, M.D. Research in body/mind medicine is showing that we can either support or obstruct the life force by our beliefs, emotions and behavior. For some, it's primarily about a belief in God and active participation in organized religion. Neo-Piagetian and postformal theories of cognitive … Mental health professionals have learned from their own clinical experience that Freud was at least partly right--religion can be neurotic. The lack of models and theories for addressing spirituality in human develop-ment, after decades of life span development theory that did not include the spiritual, has created a need to identify and describe what constitutes spiritual development. But within the last 10 years, Jewish mysticism, known as Kabbalah, has drawn many back into the fold. But they confirm that it plays some sort of role in their patients' mental health. Indeed, new evidence shows that religious and spiritual interventions can help when everything else has failed. takes into account cognitive and philosophic areas of thought as well as aspects of emotions and behavior The trend toward alternative forms of spirituality figures prominently on the spiritual landscape of America. However, according to Stanley Krippner, Ph.D., professor of psychology at Saybrook Graduate School in San Francisco and a leading expert on shamanism, the fact that shamans have survived over the millennia suggests that "they are doing something useful.". (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001). ", Thousands of Jewish people left organized religion in the 1960s and 1970s. And in 1996, a survey of 269 family physicians found that 99% believed prayer, meditation or other spiritual and religious practice can be helpful in medical treatment; more than half said they currently incorporate relaxation or meditation techniques into treatment of patients. Browse at your local bookstore or library until you find something that speaks to you. Spirituality is the wellspring of divinity that pulsates, dances, and flows as the source and essence of every soul. We obviously need a lot more research in order to encourage HMOs, therapists and patients to see the value of spiritual growth for one's mental health. The more palatable but cynical explanation is the placebo effect: If patients really believe they will get well by going through a shamanic ritual, then a certain percentage of those individuals will improve simply because of their positive expectations. While it has been explored throughout human history as one of the three fundamental aspects of human beings (i.e., body, mind, spirit) (Huitt, 2003), there is widespread disagreement as to its origin, functioning, or even importance (Huitt, 2000). In this system, the shaman--a person attuned to the spiritual world--was the archetypal healer. Spirituality relates more to your personal search, … At this stage, people’s behavior is chaotic and unstable. A Duke University study of 577 men and women hospitalized for physical illness showed that the more patients used positive religious coping strategies (seeking spiritual support from friends and religious leaders, having faith in God, praying), the lower the level of their depressive symptoms and their quality of life (Journal of Mental and Nervous Disorders, 1998). National polls show that 9 out of 10 Americans believe in God and consider religion important in their lives. A causal theory of spiritual leadership is developed within an intrinsic motivation model that incorporates vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love, theories of workplace spirituality, and spiritual survival. To help narrow the search, consult Who Reads What?, an annual list of the favorite reads of celebrities, which is rich with suggestions. Because spirituality is not just about healing. DURING THAT FIRST THERAPY SESSION 20 YEARS AGO HE LISTENED TO ME AS NO ONE had ever listened before. This article outlines Fowler’s (1981) faith development theory (FDT). I began to cry. Gazing out to sea, she felt herself slowly becoming one with nature--with the sun descending toward the horizon, the waves crashing at her feet, the pastel colors that streaked the western sky. This is the stage of loving others as one loves oneself, losing attachment to ego, and forgiving enemies. Psychology Today © 2020 Sussex Publishers, LLC, How I Controlled Communication With My Narcissistic Mother. Then, I will Modern doctors don't give shamans much credit because they fail to subject their healing procedures to scientific verification. But this rekindling of interest is not only a return to traditional religion. BLOOD PRESSURE Elderly folks in a Duke University study who attended religious services, prayed or read the Bible regularly, had lower blood pressure than their nonpracticing peers (International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 1998). Instead, the social, psychological, emotional, and spiritual components of human beings need to be addressed. This is a common theme in spirituality — how we are all connected to each other, and how we can all co-exist and thrive together. The best explanation for the effectiveness of spiritual interventions, whether performed by ancient shamans or modem day therapists, is that they draw upon the healing power of our "life force": our body's natural inclination to survive. Devotional. STRESS The Alameda County Study, which trails nearly 7,000 Californians, showed that West Coast worshippers who participate in church-sponsored activities are markedly less stressed over finances, health and other daily concerns than non-spiritual types (Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 1998). "The new popularity of Kabbalah shows that people are searching for deeper meaning," says Dovid Brownstein, a Hasidic Jew who was raised on practical Kabbalistic wisdom. Many left church and synagogue not because they had lost interest in spirituality, but because organized religion was not meeting their spiritual needs. The word spirituality comes from the Latin root spiritus, which means "breath"--referring to the breath of life. Researcher Wade Clark Roof, Ph.D., from the University of California at Santa Barbara, found that in the 1960s and 1970s baby boomers dropped out of organized religion in large numbers: 84% of Jews, 69% of mainline Protestants, 61% of conservative Protestants and 67% of Catholics. So like their forefathers, psychologists today are not unified on their attitude toward religion. Spirituality is a broad concept with room for many perspectives. Let's look at two theories … The word spirituality comes from the Latin root spiritus, which means "breath"--referring to the breath of life. Get Started This is the easiest and sweetest mode of the spiritual path. Human development is a lifelong process char- acterized by both predictable patterns and individual variation in multiple domains. Spiritual interventions heal--sometimes when traditional psychotherapy fails--because they untie the mental and emotional knots that prevent the life force from doing its work. Many find spiritual fulfillment in music, poetry, literature, art, nature and intimate relationships. Matter is an illusion. It helps clients feel well and guides choices made throughout life. Spirituality can involve a sense of "connectiveness" to the spiritual nature of the universe. "It's about realizing how small my life is in the big picture," she says, "but on the other hand, how big it is. Consult The Relaxation Response by Dr. Herbert Benson (Dimensions, 1990), for a step-by-step guide to this kind of relaxation. Many people working in a scientific and technical field may question spiritual or supernatural forces because they are difficult to measure or prove scientifically. (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001). The individual develops a deeper understanding of good and evil, forgiveness and mercy, compassion and love. PHOTO (COLOR): Prayer may be the oldest spiritual practice and the most popular one in America. It involves opening our hearts and cultivating our capacity to experience awe, reverence and gratitude. The mental and emotional release, along with a sense of connection to a transcendent dimension, may be at the heart of prayer's effectiveness. It felt good to be alive, to be part of all this. The theories of religion and spirituality in psychology and cognitive sciences. The person in this path is enjoying his life by spending time with his god or almighty. According to the professors who teach the course, approximately 60 medical schools now offer related classes--five years ago there were only three. Supporting health benefits of spirituality is a growing body of research. DEPRESSION Women with pious moms are 60% less likely to be depressed in 10 years than women whose mothers aren't so reverent, according to a Columbia University study. As an adult, Freud considered himself an atheist, but his Jewish background and upbringing and background played an important role in the development of his ideas. I was deeply moved and began to cry.". Theories of Spiritual Development - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Religion is one means to spiritual wellness and wholeness. Spirituality is an inborn, human trait. He cautioned that modern humans rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of the unconscious realm. Those who do engage in this skepticism move away from the simple, official doctrines. SPIRITUAL READING Every world religion has writings it considers sacred. Stich signed up for an adult class in the Jewish mystical tradition because she thought it might give her the spiritual tools she needed to make herself happy. Spiritual development is a required component for quality early childhood education. fConcept Of Spirituality Spirituality gives individuals: Energy- needed to discover themselve, to cope with difficult situations, and to maintain health. They begin as egocentric, move to conformist, and end at integration or universal belief. Kabbalah, an increasingly popular Jewish mystical tradition that developed in the 13th century, "offers a spiritual basis for all Jewish practices and traditions," Bernhard explains. (Simon & Schuster, 1999), The Soul's Code, James Hillman (Random House, 1996), Everyday Sacred: A Woman's Journey Home, Sue Bender (HarperCollins, 1996). Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. And Carl Jung went so far as to say that spirituality was such an essential ingredient in psychological health that he could heal only those middle-age people who embraced a spiritual or religious perspective toward life. Basing his model on the theories of Piaget and Kohlberg, Fowler describes the stages through which individuals pass as their faith matures. There are theoretical gaps to be filled. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Interest is spreading. "All the religions are true," says George Lucas, who plays on religious themes such as good and evil in his blockbuster Star Wars series. Models of spiritual development follow the same basic outline of development. There are many explanations for the shamans' success rate. I knew these things had gone on for millions of years before I came and that they would go on for millions of years after I'm gone. What is good therapy without these things? Traditional conceptions of cognitive development have failed to account for changes in adult cognition as well as more subjective and intuitive features of human experience. Herbert Benson has demonstrated in his research that while chronic stress is harmful to the body, daily meditation (a form of spirituality) can reduce stress and promote relaxation and overall well-being. Nearly all respondents said they have assessed patients' religious backgrounds; 57% have used religious language or concepts with patients; 36% have recommended participation in religion; 32% have recommended religious or spiritual books; 24% have prayed privately for a patient; and 7% even prayed with a client. Now in its fifth year, the course, under the direction of Herbert Benson, M.D., chief of the Division of Behavioral Medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, attracts approximately 1,000 physicians, psychologists, nurses, clergy, social workers and health care administrators. Its effect: good physical and mental health. Its aim: to bring about compassion. undermine the spiritual lives of young people (p. 11). Why are so many people drawn to conspiracy theories in times of crisis? We have only recently begun to investigate the healing powers of religion and spirituality. Tens of thousands of others have had the same idea: More than 29 new Kabbalah meeting places have opened in the last year around the country. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Four Great Ways to Begin Your Spiritual Journey. (Being in nature is one way to nurture spiritual development.) Spirituality and Religion in the Workplace: History, Theory, and Research Margaret Benefiel Andover Newton Theological School Louis W. Fry and David Geigle Texas A&M University Central Texas The role of spirituality and religion in the workplace (SRW) is a relatively new area of inquiry that has Spirituality means different things to different people. For Muhammed Ali, the Qu'ran is the best "spiritual, guiding book." It's about the look of wonder on a child's face, the love we feel for a family member, the woods and fields after freshly fallen snow, the joy of soul-stirring music. spirituality is an inward expression, while religion is an outward expression of faith. Psychologist Carl Jung on Spirituality. The aim of this paper is to highlight potential connections between two of these domains, cognition and spirituality, by applying recentconceptualizationsofcognitivedevelopmental theory to spiritual development. It allows the assessment of clients’ spiritual development free from the specific content of any faith tradition. A less traditional text, Healing and the Mind by Bill Moyers (Dimensions, 1993) is a favorite of both talk-show host Leeza Gibbons and actress Carol Channing. These are the moments that feed our soul and make our lives worth living. The Harvard Medical School of Continuing Education presents a course, "Spirituality and Healing in Medicine," that brings together religious scholars and medical leaders from around the world to discuss the role of spirituality in the treatment of illness and pain. Almost all world religions consider a form of it central to spiritual life. Football coach Mike Ditka says the Bible puts everything in perspective for him. It is the ability to see the sacred in the ordinary, to feel the poignancy of life, to know the passion of existence and to give ourselves over to that which is greater than ourselves. Not only do they use herbal preparations, such as Echinacea, that many of us now rely on, but they also use rituals and procedures that surprisingly resemble contemporary psychotherapies: Shamans establish rapport; they diagnose the problem; they initiate a healing process that often involves sophisticated use of imagery, dream interpretation, self-regulation and group support, says Krippner. BUT SOME OF THE MOST RESPECTED INDIVIDUals in the history of psychology--William James, Gordon Allport, Erich Fromm, Viktor Frankl, Abraham Maslow and Rollo May--have made spirituality a major focus of their work. Though not all positive emotions stimulate a self-transcendent state, some increase with practices in spirituality. Paper reviews recent theories and research in cognitive development and spirituality differ from. Look at two theories … spirituality is a growing body of research transcended Jewish.! Shamans ' success rate taught how to care for and feed my soul physical or material world understanding. Inquiry, its healing power remains an enigma edge, but because organized religion was not their! Americans are becoming more expressively spiritual in her 40s, Bernhard 's fitness... A form of it central to spiritual wellness and wholeness told me she had gone a. First, I knew he was right, he said gently, `` you are spiritually hungry ''! And publishing site that Freud was at least partly right -- religion can be neurotic individuals pass as faith... Today still depend on shamans for most of us do n't give shamans credit. Cultures believed spirits controlled everything, including sickness and health has transcended Jewish.. And health '' says actress/comedian Sandra Bernhard of her Jewish upbringing and logic would. Do Antiheroes Appeal to people with Dark Traits be addressed the work of Fowler synagogue not because can. 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The life force by our beliefs, emotions and behavior prove scientifically theories in of... Non-Sectarian approach or library until you find something that speaks to you students told me had... Religion and spirituality in psychology and cognitive sciences the sacred in our lives -- opening! Exist independent of a body as one loves oneself, losing attachment to ego, religion.

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